Rugged mountains and associated forest vegetation characterize the Mae Chaem basin. The basin has a wide range of elevation, from 282 metres at its lowest point, to 2,565 metres at its highest point – the peak of Doi Inthanon (the highest mountain in Thailand). Altitude variation induces different climatic zones with distinctive types of natural landcover.
Dominant vegetation includes;
Steep hillsides with slopes exceeding 25% are a common landscape element, resulting in rates of soil erosion that prevent advanced soil development. Thus, soils are relatively shallow and have limited water-holding capacity. Dominant soil textures are sandy clay loam and clay loam.